Physiology Notes for FCPS Part 1




✔Imp points about cell ✅Golgi concave surface towards nucleus ✅Golgi containing vesicles ✅Lysosome brown staining ✅Lysosome hallow ✅Lysosomes contains dna ✅Basophillic ribosomes And RER ✅Mitochondria double membrane ✅Mitochondria contain electrone transport chain ✅Lysosome hydrolases ✅Peroxisome oxidases and h2o2

✔Muscle spindles and GTO ✅Stretch reflex monitors muscle length,monosynaptic Controled by intrafusal fiber(gamma motor neurons) present in muscle spindles So Muscle spindles monitor muscle length Streth> intrafusal activation>Ia fiber to extrafusal fibers> inc agonists activity Via interneurons dec antagonists activity ✅Inverse stretch Receptor are golgi tendon organs Control tension via Ib fibers Polysynaptically activate antagonists and inhibits agonists Preventing tendon rupture ✅If asked what gamma motor neurons do> controls tension ✅Flexor withdrawl Receptor are nicireceptors Same side flexion Contralateral extension So also called cross extensor reflex

✅Muscle spindles controls length ✅GTO control tension ✅GTO prevents muscles from tearing ✅Resting tone because of spindles

✅In skeletal muscle ruanodine receptors are for calcium rather than dihydropyridine recptors which are just sensore of action potential ✅amino acids > inc gastrin ✅Alcohal > HCL ✅only proteins diet>⬆glucagon

✔During exercise:

✅Systolic B.P increases ✅Diastolic decreases ✅MAP:stays same ✅Cerebral blood flow doesn’t change(because its dependent on art pCO2 which stays constant during hyperventilation) ✅Coronary blood flow increases(because of adenosine) ✅Skeletal m. Blood flow increases(because of lactic acid production) ✅Pulmonary blood flow increases (However pressure remains normal due to increased compliance)

✔Patho facts

✔ Klinefelter Syndrome: ✅47XXY ✅Common cause of Hypogonadism ✅Presents with developmental delay

✅Testicular Atrophy ✅ Dysgenesis of Seminoferous tubules> ⬇ Inhibin> ⬆FSH

✅Leydig Cell Dysfuction> ⬇ Testosterone > ⬆ Estrogen > Gynecomastia ? Tall with Long Extremities ? scanty Bar Body present

✔ Turner Syndrome ✅45XO ✅Most common cause of primary Amenorrhea

? Short ē low set ears ? Shield Chest ē widely spaced nipples ? Streak ovaries ? Biscsupid AV ? Preductal CoA • Radiofemoral delay ? Lymphatic Defects ✅Webbed neck due to cystic hygroma ✅ Absent Bar Body


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