Notes of FCPS Part 1 by Dr Arslan Mahmood


When asking for baby less than 18 months tick pcr When asking for screening tick elisa Baqi hr jaga tick western blot

Less than 18 months…PCR More than 18 months…Westren blot ELISA…screening test ha Screening: Elisa Specific: western blot Confirmatory test : western blot

AntiANA….if asked sensitivity AntiDsDNA…if asked specific or diagnostic for SLE Sjorgerns : specific both : Anti Ssdna

Tissue for hla : granulocytes Cell for hla : leukocyte or granulocyte Anti SSB Buccal mucosa : for dna analysis

Viral hep : alt Alcohol induced : ast Viral hepatitis….ALT>AST alcoholic hepatitis….AST>ALT GGT…inc in various liver and biliary disease just as ALP but NOT in bone diseases. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease….ALT>AST For both intra as well as extrahepatic cholestatasis GGT>>>>ALP Usually in obstruction cases AST/ALT dont raise.but they do elevate when there is associated parenchymal that case Extrahepatic….AST Intrahepatic….ALT If GGT not in option then choose ALP.


GLUCOSE & HCO3….MORE than plasma

Na,K,Cl……..LESS than Plasma

Mg & Ca…..EQUAL to plasma

Urea ,Cr , Sulphate ,Urate…..ZERO

Phemphigus vulgaris IgG Ab against DESMOGLEIN Fatal autoimmune skin dis Oral mucosa involved Flaccid intraepidermal bullae

Bullous Pemphigoid…IgG ab against HEMIDESMOSOMES Less severe Oral mucosa spared Tense blisters

Bullous sub epidermal Vulgaris intra epidermal

Natural antithrombitic in body: plasminogen

Natural anticoagulant: heparin

Continous contraction without relaxation: tetanus

For hospitilzed patients heparin. For long term…like when they go home..prescribe warfarin

Striatum consists of caudate + putamen Corpus Striatum consists of caudate + lentiform Lentiform : globus pallidus +putamen

Premalignant lesions Candidoisis Carcinoma in situ Leukoplakia Erythroplakia Leucokeratosis nicotina palataina

Premalignant conditions Oral submucous fibrosis

Lichen planus Actinic keratosis Syphillis Discoid lupus erythromatousus Suderopenic dyspjagia

Types of amelogenesis imperfecta Hypomaturation :

Hypoplasia : inadequate maturation, enamel not formed to full normal thickness

Hypocalcifucation : no maturation occurs

Normal enamel matrix but complete loss of maturation : hypocalcified

Normal enamel matrix but inadequate maturation: hypoplastic

Oral histo points

Hutchunsons triad of congenital syphillis blindness Deafness c.n 8 Dental abnormalities: mulberry molars , Hutchinson incisors peg lateral incicisrs

Raschkow plexus : present in cell free zone of weil . Devoid of cells except during dentinogeneseis

Cell free zone contain fibroblasts and undifferentiated mesenchymal tissue

There are no elastic fibers in pulp

True pulp stones : surrounds dentinal tubules or odontoblastic processes


False pulp stones : surround dead cells or collagen

On loss of tooth alveoler ridge atrophy occurs

Cabcelloeus /trabeculae/spony bone makes up majority of alveoler bone

New bone formation during orthodontic movement is intramembranous

Pdl is soft tissue btw tooth and pdl .2 mm wide Periodontium : cementum ,alveoler bone and pdl

Most common cells of pdl are fibroblasts

Intrusive/ extrusive forces / vertical resistance: alveoler crest fibers

Latearl resistance: horizontal

Most abundant: oblique group fibers

Only extrusive: apical grp

Intrusive and rotaional : oblique

Main resistance to masticatory forces provided by oblique group fibers

Sharpeys fibers are thicker on alveoler bone side

Few for points of dental materials :

Calcium sulfate :reactor in alginate

Sodium sulphate: accelerator in gypsum

Sodium phosphate : retarder in alginate

Cant be elactroplated : agar

Hydrocolloids : solid in liquid Emulsion: liquid in liquid Suspension and emulsions are two phase systems

Hydrocolloids are lyosols

Temp lag btw liquefaction and gelation is hysterisis


Apexification is a method of inducing a calcified barrier at the apex of a nonvital tooth with incomplete root formation. Apexogenesis refers to a vital pulp therapy procedure performed to encourage physiological development and formation of the root end.

Sprue : channel through which metal or plastic is poured into a mould.

Abfraction lesions are small notches caused by stress (forces) on your teeth. Biting, chewing, clenching and grinding put pressure on your teeth. Over time, this pressure can cause cracks and splits in the outer layer of your teeth. This occurs in the thinnest part of your enamel, near the gumlin

Passivation : coat of base metal alloys to protect from corrosion

Autocatalytic reaction seen in : zoe

Higher the compressive strength higher will be hardness

Divestment: combination of die stone + gypsum bonded investment mixed with colloidal silica

Dicor : ceramic which is castable

Cermet : gic + silver amalgam alloy

Silver alloy admixed : spherical amalgam alloy powder mixed with type 2 gic powder done by sintering/miracle mix

Dental investment: plaster mixed with silica


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