Important Anatomical Levels and Buffers of Body


These points are very important for the exam of FCPS Part 1. MCQs from the following points always come in the exam of FCPS Part 1. Try to cover all these points to solve the MCQs of FCPS Part 1. Anatomical points as well as major Buffers are given bellow.

Bifurcation of Common Carotid Artery is at C4
Hyoid Bone is present at the level of C3


Carotid Pulse can be palpated at C5
Thyroid Cartilage is present at C5
Esophagus begins at the level of C6
Trachea begins at the level of C6
Cricoid Cartilage is present at C6
Vertebra prominence is present at C7
Arch of aorta is present at T2
Sternal Notch is present at T2
Trachea bifurcates at T4
Sternal Angle is present at T4
Junction of superior and inferior Mediastinum is present at T4
Xiphisternal Joint is present at T9
Celiac trunk is present at T12
Conus Medullaris in adult is present at L1
Conus Medularis in newborn is present at L3
Inferior Messenteric artery is present at L3
Umblicus is present at L3 and is supplied by T10
Iliac Crest is present at L4, its lower boarder is used for Lumbur Puncture
Bifurcation of Aorta is present at L4
Sigmoid Colon begins at S1
Dural Sac ends at S2
Sigmoid Colon ends at S3

3 Important Bifurcations:
C4 = Carotids
T4 = Trachea
L4 = Aorta

Structures passing through the Diaphragm at T8 is Inferior Vena Cava,  at T10 is Esophagus and at T12 is Aorta

Major Buffers of Body:
Bicarbonate = Interstitial Fluid/Extracellular Fluid
Buffer of Blood is Bicarbonate
Buffer of RBCs is Haemoglobin
Buffer of Intra-cellular Fluid is Protein
Buffer present only in Urine is Ammonia
Buffer of Bone is Calcium Carbonate


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